Gender Differences in Preferred Work Values in Pakistani IT Industry: Insights from Generation Z

  • Adnan Ahmad Khan PhD Scholar, The Superior College, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ilyas Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Govt. College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan
Keywords: Generation Z, Gender Differences, Work Values, Employability Attributes, Gender Similarities, IT Industry

Abstract

Purpose: Information Technology is playing a vital role in supporting struggling economies in the world and the Generation Z has the remarkable potential to make things happen in this context among all known cohorts. More than one third population of Pakistan falls in Generation Z and almost 48% of this pool comprises of females. Increasing trend in Pakistani females perusing higher studies and momentous enrollment of females at degree level implies that a significant chunk of available manpower for IT industry will be female in gender in upcoming years. IT industry has to pay attention to employability preferences of this pool as well in order to attract, attain and retain the best talented resources out of this segment to gain competitive advantage.

Design/Methodology/Approach: This study is based upon a sample of IT students, approached through mixed sampling technique and gender-specific comparison is conducted with the help Mann-Whiney U test after ensuring reliability and validity checks.

Findings: The results depict gender differences in almost 37% variables considered in this study, hence serve as a strong baseline for practitioners and strategists of IT industry in Pakistan to gain a competitive edge in ever-changing, dynamic business world.

Implications/Originality/Value: Although handling of Generation Z representatives is a significant challenge for managers belonging to antecedent generations in current business operations, gender differences are yet another dimension to be explored in detail for competitiveness.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Analytics Summary

Author Biography

Muhammad Ilyas, Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Govt. College Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan

2nd Author

References

Alink, L. R. A., Mesman, J., van Zeijl, J., Stolk, M. N., Juffer, F., Koot, H. M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2006). The Early Childhood Aggression Curve: Development of Physical Aggression in 10 to 50 Month Old Children. Child Development, 77(4), 954–966. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00912.x

Allerton, H.E., (2001). Generation Why: They Promise to be the Biggest Influence since the Baby Boomers. Training & Development, 55(11), 56-57.

Angeline, T. (2011). Managing Generational Diversity at the Workplace: Expectations and Perceptions of Different Generations of Employees. African Journal of Business Management, 5(2), 249-255.

Arar, T., & Yüksel, İ. (2015). How to Manage Generation Z in Business Life. Journal of Global Economics, Management and Business Research, 4(4), 195-202.

Bridges, T. (2015, August 19). 5 Ways the Workplace Needs to Change to Get the Most Out of Generation Z. Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/3049848/5-ways-the-workplace-needs-to-change-to-get-the-most-out-of-generation-z

Csiszárik-Kocsír, Á., & Garia-Fodor, M. (2018). Motivation Analysing and Preference System of Choosing a Workplace as Segmentation Criteria Based on a Country Wide Research Result Focus on Generation of Z. On-Line Journal Modelling the New Europe, 27, 67–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24193/OJMNE.2018.27.03

Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1984). A Psychological Theory of Work Adjustment: An Individual-Differences Model and its Applications. University of Minnesota Press.

Dose, J. J., (1997). Work Values: An Integrative Framework and Illustrative Application to Organizational Socialization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(3), 219-240. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00645.x

Durik, A. M., Hyde, J. S., Marks, A. C., Roy, A. L., Anaya, D., & Schultz, G. (2006). Ethnicity and Gender Stereotypes of Emotion. Sex Roles, 54(7–8), 429–445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9020-4

Eagly, A. H. (2009). The His and Hers of Prosocial Behavior: An Examination of the Social Psychology of Gender. American Psychologist, 64(8), 644–658. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.64.8.644

Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J., & Makhijani, M. G. (1995). Gender and the Effectiveness of Leaders: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 117(1), 125–145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.125

Foster, K. (2013). Generation and Discourse in Working Life Stories. The British Journal of Sociology, 64(2), 195–215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12014

George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (1999). Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley: New York.

Hollingworth, L. S. (1918). Comparison of the Sexes in Mental Traits. Psychological Bulletin, 15(12), 427–432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0075023

Howe, N. & Strauss, W., (1991). Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: William Morrow & Company.

Hyde, J. S. (2005). The Gender Similarities Hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60(6), 581–592. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.6.581

Hyde, J. S. (2014). Gender Similarities and Differences. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 373-398. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115057

Jalava, J., & Pohjola, M. (2002). Economic Growth in the New Economy: Evidence from Advanced Economies. Information Economics and Policy, 14(2), 189–210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6245(01)00066-X

Kapil, Y., & Roy, A. (2014). Critical Evaluation of Generation Z at Workplaces. International Journal of Social Relevance & Concern, 2, 10-11.

Kirchmayer, Z., & Fratričová, J. (2020). On the Verge of Generation Z: Career Expectations of Current University Students. Education Excellence and Innovation Management through Vision, 1575-1583.

Levickaite, R. (2010). Generations X, Y, Z: How Social Networks form the Concept of the World Without Borders (the case of Lithuania). LIMES: Cultural Regionalistics, 3(2), 170-183.

Mannheim, K. (1952). Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

McCrindle, M. (2006). New Generations at Work: Attracting, Recruiting, Retraining and Training Generation Y. Norwest Business Park, New South Wales: McCrindle Research.

McCrindle, M. (2014). The ABC of XYZ: Understanding the Global Generations (3rd ed.), McCrindle Research, Bella Vista.

McGuire, P. (2019, March 5). Move Aside Millennials: Generation Z is set to Reshape the Workplace of the Future. The Irish Times.

Meret, C., Fioravanti, S., Iannotta, M., & Gatti, M. (2018). The Digital Employee Experience: Discovering Generation Z. Digital Technology and Organizational Change, 241-256. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62051-0_20

Murray, K. (2013). An Empirical Study of the Characteristics of Generational Cohorts at Work (PhD Thesis). Massey University – New Zealand.

O'Malley, S. (2006), Attracting and Retaining Generation Y Employees, Insurance Advocate, 117(24).

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2017a). Percentage Distribution of Population by Age, Sex and Area. Retrieved from

https://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//Labour%20Force/publications/lfs2017_18/TABLE-3_perc_R.pdf

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2017b). Percentage Distribution of Population by Age, Sex, Literacy and Level of Education. Retrieved from

https://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files/Labour%20Force/publications/lfs2017_18/TABLE-3_perc_R.pdf

Shahiduzzaman, M., & Alam, K. (2014). Information Technology and its Changing Roles to Economic Growth and Productivity in Australia. Telecommunications Policy, 38(2), 125-135. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2013.07.003

Shields, S. (1975). Functionalism, Darwinism, and the Psychology of Women. American Psychologist, 30(7), 739–754. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076948

Singh, A. (2014). Challenges and Issues of Generation Z. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 16(7), 59–63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9790/487X-16715963

Singh, A. P., & Dangmei, J. (2016). Understanding the Generation Z: The Future Workforce. South-Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 3(3), 1-5.

Statistics Canada. (2011). Census of Population.

Su, R., Rounds, J., & Armstrong, P. I. (2009). Men and Things, Women and People: A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Interests. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 859–884. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017364

Tannen, D. (1990). You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Ballantine Books.

Thorndike, E.L. (1914). Educational Psychology (Vol. 3). New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

Tucker, P. (2006). Teaching the Millennial Generation. The Futurist, 40(3), 7.

Twenge, J. (2018, November 13). Smartphones Raising a Mentally Fragile Generation. eNCA. Retrieved from https://www.enca.com/analysis/smartphones-raising-mentally-fragile-generation

Vecumniece, E., & Leontjeva, O. (2017). Generation Z Business Students as Future Employees of Organisations in Latvia: Empirical Study. In 58th International Riga Technical University Scientific Conference on Economics and Entrepreneurship SCEE, 17, 131-132.

Verhaagen, D. A. (2005). Parenting the Millennial Generation: Guiding our Children Born between 1982 and 2000. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Walvis, A. (2018, September 17). Goldman Sachs | Insights - Millennials and Gen Z Picking Their Wardrobes Online. Goldman Sachs. Retrieved from

https://www.goldmansachs.com/insights/pages/millennials-gen-z-pick-wardrobes-online.html

Wiedmer, T. (2015). Generations Do Differ: Best Practices in Leading Traditionalists, Boomers, and Generations X, Y, and Z. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 82(1), 51.

Wong, P.-K. (2002). ICT Production and Diffusion in Asia Digital Dividends or Digital Divide? Information Economics and Policy, 14(2), 167–187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6245(01)00065-8

Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2012). Biosocial Construction of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behavior. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 46, pp. 55–123). Academic Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394281-4.00002-7

Yousefi, A. (2011). The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Economic Growth: Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 20(6), 581–596. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10438599.2010.544470

Published
2021-03-31
How to Cite
Khan, A. A., & Ilyas, M. (2021). Gender Differences in Preferred Work Values in Pakistani IT Industry: Insights from Generation Z. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 7(1), 23-31. https://doi.org/10.26710/jbsee.v7i1.1552