Relationship between Representation of Violence Against Women in TV Drama Serials and Reactivity of Viewers

  • Sajida Awais PhD Scholar, Faculty of Media and Communication, University of Central Punjab, Lahore , Pakistan
  • Atif Ashraf Assistant Professor, Faculty of Media and Communication, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ghulam Shabir Professor, Faculty of Media and Communication, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Viewer’s Reactivity, Perception of Violence against Women, Gender Differences

Abstract

Purpose: The present study aims to explore the role of viewer’s reactivity of entertainment and empathy in their perception of violence against women among viewers of Lahore, Pakistan. The supplementary aim was also formulated to gain more clear insight which is the role of viewers’ gender in viewer’s reactivity and perception of violence against women.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Quantitative method was used in the study.  Sample was consisted of 500 viewers of the thirty dramas serials of Geo, ARY Digital and Hum TV which presented violence against women. The participants were drawn through purposive and snowball sampling strategies.  The sample has 233 male participants and 267 female participants.

Findings: The findings indicated that viewer’s reactivity of both enjoyment and empathy correlated with perception of violence against women. Gender differences were found only for the one sub scale of perception (i.e., domination).

Implications/Originality/Value: The findings highlighted that perception of violence against women was more inclined towards active violence being portrayed by the entertainment channels and chances to imitate the same behavior in society cannot be ruled out.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Analytics Summary

References

References

Abraham, M. (2000). Speaking the unspeakable. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Amorós, C. (2008). Women and Imaginary of Globalization; Homo Sapiens Ediciones: Sarmiento, Argentina.

Ayyub, R. (2000). Domestic violence in the South Asian Muslim immigrant population in the United States. Journal of Social Distress and Homeless, 9, 237-248.

Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied psychology, 51(2), 269-290.

Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health education & behavior, 31(2), 143-164.

Bettencourt A. (2000). Violence against women in Pakistan. Human Rights Advocacy Clinic; Litigation Report Spring 2000. Retrieved from www.du.edu/intl/humanrights/violencepkstn.pdf

Bloom, S. S. (2008). Violence against women and girls: A compendium of monitoring and evaluation indicators. MEASURE Evaluation, Carolina Population Center.

Díaz-Aguado, M .J. (2003). Adolescencia, sexismo y violencia de género. Papeles del Psicólogo, 84, 35-44.

Cantera, I., Estébanez, I., i Vázquez, N. (2009): Violencia contra las mujeres jóvenes: la violencia psicológica en las relaciones de noviazgo. Bilbao: Servicio de Mujer del Módulo Psicosocial de Deusto-San Ignacio, Emakunde. Recuperat de http:// minoviomecontrola.com/ianire-estebanez/ Resumen-violencia-contra- mujeres-jovenes-noviazgo.pdf

Chomsky, N. (2002). Media control: The spectacular achievements of propaganda (Vol. 7). Seven Stories Press.

Council of Europe. (2011). Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. Retrieved on November 22, 2014 from http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Reports/Html/210.htm

Cuklanz, L. M. (2000). Rape on prime time: Television, masculinity, and sexual violence. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Easteal, P., Holland, K., & Judd, K. (2015, January). Enduring themes and silences in media portrayals of violence against women. In Women's Studies International Forum (Vol. 48, pp. 103-113). Pergamon.

El Abani, S., & Pourmehdi, M. (2017). Perception of Domestic Violence against Women amongst Libyan Migrants in Manchester. Journal of Sociology and Social Work, 5(2), 128-138.

Emmers-Sommer, T. M., Pauley, P., Hanzal, A., & Triplett, L. (2006). Love, suspense, sex, and violence: Men’s and women’s film predilections, exposure to sexually violent media, and their relationship to rape myth acceptance. Sex Roles, 55(5-6), 311-320.

Estébanez, I., & Vázquez, N. (2010). Diagnóstico de la percepción y opiniones sobre la violencia sexista de la juventud de los municipios de Ondarroa y Markina-Xemein. Bilbao: Sortzen Consultoría. Recuperado de http://bit. ly/2ko9jfc.

Eurobarometer (2016).Gender based violence. Retrieved from

http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0ahUKEwjZtKmU7vjQAhVBllQKHbOmDV0QFggnMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fec.europa.eu%2FCOMMFrontOffice%2Fpublicopinion%2Findex.cfm%2FResultDoc%2Fdownload%2FDocumentKy%2F75837&usg=AFQjCNFFLb_FaVPfugVk_A8RQWZGkSprRQ. [Accessed 16 December 2016].

Expósito, F., & Moya, M. (2005). Violencia de género. In F. Expósito, & M. Moya (Eds.), Aplicando la psicología social (pp. 201-227). Madrid: Pirámide

Exposito, F., & Herrera, I. (2009). Social perception of violence against women: individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers. European journal of psychology applied to legal context, 1(1), 123-145.

Fanti, K. A., Vanman, E., Henrich, C. C., & Avraamides, M. N. (2009). Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 35(2), 179-187.

Fikree, F.F., Bhatti, L. I. (1999). Domestic violence and health of Pakistani women. International J Gynaecol Obstet, 65,195-201.

Fikree, F. F., Razzak, J. A., & Durocher, J. (2005). Attitudes of Pakistani men to domestic violence; A study from Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Men’s Health and Gender, 2(1), 49-58.

Flood, M., & Pease, B. (2009). Factors influencing attitudes to violence against women. Trauma, violence, & abuse, 10(2), 125-142.

Hafeez, M. M., Ahmed, R. N., Khan, M. D., & Safdar, M. A. (2020). What are the Crisis and Issues of Governance in Pakistan? An Analysis. Review of Applied Management & Social Science, 3(1), 53-59.

Harris, R. J., Firestone, J. M., & Vega, W. A. (2005). The interaction of country of origin, acculturation, and gender role ideology on wife abuse. Social Science Quarterly, 86(2), 463-483.

Herrera, M. C. (2005). Asimetría de poder en las relaciones interpersonales como predictor de la violencia de género. Unpublished manuscript, Universidad de Granada, Spain.

Huesmann, L. R., & Kirwil, L. (2007). Why observing violence increases the risk of violent behavior by the observer.

Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP).State of human rights in 1999. Lahore: HRCP, 2000.

Human Rights Watch, 'Crime or Custom? Violence against Women in Pakistan, Report of Human Rights Watch 1999. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/pakistan/index.htm

Jamieson, P. E., & Romer, D. (2014). Violence in Popular U.S. Prime Time TV Dramas and the Cultivation of Fear: A Time Series Analysis.Media and Communication, 2 (2), 31-41. Retrieved from http://repository.upenn.edu/asc_papers/349

Jejeebhoy S. (1998). Associations between wife beating and fetal and infant death: Impressions from a survey in rural India. Stud Fam Plann,29, 300-308.

Kahlor, L., & Eastin, M. S. (2011). Television's role in the culture of violence toward women: A study of television viewing and the cultivation of rape myth acceptance in the United States. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 55(2), 215-231.

Korac, M. (2018). Feminists against sexual violence in war: The question of perpetrators and victims revisited. Soc. Sci. 7, 182.

Lee, M. J., Hust, S., Zhang, L., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Effects of violence against women in popular crime dramas on viewers’ attitudes related to sexual violence. Mass Communication & Society, 14(1), 25–44. doi: 10.1080/15205430903531440

Lee, S. K., Lindsey, N. J., & Kim, K. S. (2017). The effects of news consumption via social media and news information overload on perceptions of journalistic norms and practices. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 254-263.

Lievore D. (2003). Non-reporting and hidden recording of sexual assault: An international literature review. Canberra: Commonwealth Office of the Status of Women

Linz D, Donnerstein E, Penrod S. 1984. The effects of long-term exposure to filmed violence against women. J Commun, 34, 130–147.

Mahlstedt, D. L., & Welsh, L. A. (2005). Perceived causes of physical assault in heterosexual dating relationships. Violence against women, 11, 447-472.

Mapi Research Institute. (2002). Mapi guidelines for translation. Retrieved from https://linkssystem.org/score/Portal/Moz/PedsQL/PedsQL%20Linguistic%20Validation%20Guidelines_updated_sept%202006_cay.pdf

Margolis, D. N. (1998). Culturally sanctioned violence against women: A look at attitudes toward rape. Boston College.

Murnen, S.K., Wright, C., & Kaluzny, G. (2002). If “boys will be boys”, then girls will be victims? A meta-analytic review of the research that relates masculine ideology to sexual aggression. Sex Roles, 46, 359-375.

Osuna-Rodríguez, M., Rodríguez-Osuna, L. M., Dios, I., & Amor, M. I. (2020). Perception of gender-based violence and sexual harassment in university students: Analysis of the information sources and risk within a relationship. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(11), 3754.

Pratto, F., & Walker, A. (2004). The bases of gendered power. In A. H. Eagly, A. E. Beall, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of gender (2nd ed., pp. 242-268). New York: The Guilford Press.

Roshan, R. P. M. A., & Parvez, D. M. A. (2012). Effects hierarchy of violence against women on gender’s behavior by the exposure of television fare. Journal of social sciences and management, 2(1), 80-86.

Safdar, F., & Khan, N. (2020). Stigma, Cognitive Emotional Regulation and Psychological Distress in Victims of Women Trafficking. Bahria Journal of Professional Psychology, 19(2), 75-87.

Shah, S. (July 28, 2021). An overview of crime against women in Pakistan. The News. Retrieved from https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/869740-an-overview-of-crimes-against-women-in-pakistan

The Global Gender Gap Report 2021. World Economic Forum 2021. https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2021.

Visaria L. (1999). Violence against women in India: Evidence from rural Gujarat. Domestic violence in India; A summary report of three studies. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), pp 14-25.

Walby, S. (1990). Theorising Patriarchy. Oxford: Basil Black Well.

Wear, D. & Skillicorn, J. H. (2009). In Plain Sight: The Formal, Informal, and Hidden Curricula of a Psychiatry Clerkship. The Educational Environment Academic Medicine, 84(4).

White, J. W. (2001). Aggression and gender. In Encyclopedia of women and gender (Vol. 1, pp. 81-93): New York: Academic Press.

World bank (2019, September 25). Gender-Based Violence (Violence Against Women and Girls). Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/socialsustainability/brief/violence-against-women-and-girls

Wright, P. J., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2016). Men’s objectifying media consumption, objectification of women, and attitudes supportive of violence against women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(4), 955-964.

World Health Organization. (2021, March9). Violence against women. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women

Zakar, R., Zakar, M. Z., & Kraemer, A. (2013). Men’s beliefs and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women in Pakistan. Violence against women, 19(2), 246-268.

Published
2021-12-30
How to Cite
Awais, S., Ashraf, A., & Shabir, G. (2021). Relationship between Representation of Violence Against Women in TV Drama Serials and Reactivity of Viewers . Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 7(4), 821-833. https://doi.org/10.26710/jbsee.v7i4.1990