Job Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment among Paramedical: Mediating Role of Work Family Conflict

  • Iram Batool Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan
  • Shaukat Hussain Department of Applied Psychology, Government Postgraduate College, Jhang, Pakistan
  • Ruqia Safdar Bajwa Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan
Keywords: Work-family conflict, job satisfaction, marital adjustment, paramedical staff


Purpose: An extensive pressure arose by work environment or by family environment resulted as work-family conflict. Occurrences of such conflicts are observed when employees experienced interference of work to family and family to work. Keeping the literature available on effects of work-family conflict in relationship to job satisfaction and marital adjustment, this study was designed to investigate the mediating role played by work family conflict between the relationship of job satisfaction and marital adjustment among paramedical staff. Another aim of this study was to explore the relationship among three variables. Furthermore, it was aimed to find out if there are any differences on gender or other demographical variables.  A sample of 100 employees was taken from Jhang and Faisalabad city. Instruments for measuring Work family developed by Netemeyer et al. (1996), job satisfaction developed by Paul E. Spector, (1994), and adapted and translated by Shazad, (2011) were used. Dyadic adjustment scale developed by Spanier, (1976) and adapted and translated into Urdu by Naseer (2000) were also used. Results revealed positive correlation between work to family and family to work conflict, while negative with marital adjustment and job satisfaction. The regression analysis showed Job satisfaction contributed 29% and family to work contributed 27% in predicting marital adjustment. Significant gender differences were found. The results of partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) found significant mediating role of work to family conflict and family to work conflict.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Analytics Summary


Abbas, K. A., &Tanwani, A. K. (1997).Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in healthy children. JOURNAL-PAKISTAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 47, 93-93.

Adams, M. A., McNally, D. S., & Dolan, P. (1996).‘STRESS’DISTRIBUTIONS INSIDE INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS. J Bone Joint Surg Br, 78(6), 965-972. DOI:

AJAYI, B. O., & Dewar, A. M. (1983).The effect of barley yellow dwarf virus on field populations of the cereal aphids, Sitobionavenae and Metopolophiumdirhodum. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(1), 1-11. DOI:

Allen, T. D., Herst, D. E., Bruck, C. S., & Sutton, M. (2000). Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: a review and agenda for future research. Journal of occupational health psychology, 5(2), 278. DOI:

Aryee, S., Srinivas, E. & Tan, H. (2005). Rhythms of life: Antecedents and outcomes of work family balance in employed parents, Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 132-146. DOI:

Barnett, R. C., & Marshall, N. L. (1992).Worker and mother roles, spillover effects, and psychological distress.Women and Health, 18, 9–40. DOI:

Bedeian, A. G., Burke, B. G., & Moffett, R. G. (1988). Outcomes of work-family conflict among married male and female professionals. Journal of management, 14(3), 475-491. DOI:

Bellavia.G. &Frone, M. (2005).Work-family conflict. In J. Barling, E. K. Kelloway, and M. Frone (Eds.), Handbook of Work Stress, (pp. 113. 147). Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks. DOI:

Bradbury, T. N., &Fincham, F. D. (1990). Attributions in marriage: review and critique. Psychological bulletin, 107(1), 3. DOI:

Carlson, D. S. &Perrewé, P. L. (1999). The Role of Social Support in the Stressor-Strai Relationship: An Examination of Work-Family Conflict. Journal of Management, 25(4), 513-540. doi:10.1177/014920639902500403 DOI:

Challberg, M. D., & Kelly, T. J. (1979). Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro: origin and direction of daughter strand synthesis. Journal of molecular biology, 135(4), 999-1012. DOI:

Chohan F. (2013) unpublished thesis, university of punjab

Clarke, M. C., Koch, L. C., & Hill, E. J. (2004). The Work‐Family Interface: Differentiating Balance and Fit. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 33(2), 121-140. DOI:

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and individual differences, 13(6), 653-665. DOI:

Cox, Tom, Amanda Griffiths, &EusebioRial-Gonzalez (2000).Research on Work-Related Stress. Luxemburg, Germany: Office for the Publications of the European Communities.

Cranny, C. J., Smith, P. C., & Stone, E. F. (Eds.). (1992). Job satisfaction: How people feel about their jobs and how it affects their performance. Lexington Books.

Diaz-Serrano, L. & Cabral-Vieira, J. A. (2005). Low Pay, Higher Pay and Job Satisfaction within the European Union: Empirical Evidence from Fourteen Countries, Maynooth and University of the Azores -Department of Economics and Business, National University of Ireland. DOI:

Dyck, J. L., &Smither, J. A. A. (1994). Age differences in computer anxiety: The role of computer experience, gender and education. Journal of educational computing research, 10(3), 239-248. DOI:

Edwards, Rothbard, N. P. (2001). Enriching or depleting? The dynamics of engagement in work and family roles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 655–684. DOI:

Ernst Kossek, E., &Ozeki, C. (1998). Work–family conflict, policies, and the job–life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior–human resources research. DOI:

Frone, M. R., Yardley, J. K. & Markel, K. S. (1997). Developing and testing an integrative model of the work–family interface. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(2), 145-167. DOI:

Gazioglu, S., &Tansel, A. (2006). Job satisfaction in Britain: individual and job related factors. Applied Economics, 38(10), 1163-1171. DOI:

Gerson, K. (2009, December). Changing Lives, Resistant Institutions: A New Generation Negotiates Gender, Work, and Family Change1. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 735-753). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. DOI:

Gill, S. & Davidson, M. J. (2001).Problems and pressures facing lone mothers in management and professional occupations – a pilot study. Women in Management Review, 16(8), 383 – 399. DOI:

Grandey, A. Cordeiro, B. &Crouter, A. (2005).A longitudinal and multi-source test of the work-family conflict and job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 305-323. DOI:

Greenhaus, J. H., &Beutell, N. J. (1985).Sources of conflict between work and family roles Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88. DOI:

Grote, N. K., & Clark, M. S. (2001). Perceiving unfairness in the family: cause or consequence of marital distress?. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(2), 281. DOI:

Gruneberg, M. M. (1979). Understanding Job Satisfaction. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. DOI:

Hammer, L. B., Bauer, T. N., &Grandey, A. A. (2003). Work-family conflict and work-related withdrawal behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(3), 419-436. DOI:

Hennessy, K. D. (2007). Work-family balance: An exploration of conflict and enrichment for women in a traditional occupation. ProQuest.

Higgins, C., Duxbury, L., & Johnson, K. L. (2000). Part-time work for women: does it really help balance work and family?. Human Resource Management, 39(1), 17-32. DOI:<17::AID-HRM3>3.0.CO;2-Y

Holmlund M. &Strandvik, T. (2005). Stress in the business relationship. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 20(1), 12-22. DOI:

Huang, Y., Hammer, L., Neal, M. & Perrin, N. (2004). The relationship between work to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict: A longitudinal study. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 25, 79- 100. DOI:

Hussain,S&Bashir,A., (2016). Work-family conflict, occupational stress and job satisfaction in paramedics. Unpublished thesis, Govt . Postgraduate college Jhang Pakistan

Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., &Olekalns, M. (1997). Organisationalbehaviour and management.Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind.Special Request Service.

Karimi, Q., Jomehri, F., Asadzade, H., &Sohrabi, F. (2012).Consequences of conflict between work and family among Iranian female teachers. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(2), 1869-1875.

Kim, J. L. & Ling, C. S. (2001). Work-family conflict of women entrepreneurs in Singapore.Women in management review 16(5), 204-221. DOI:

Kossek, E. E., Pichler, S., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2011). Workplace social support and work–family conflict: A meta‐analysis clarifying the influence of general and work–family‐specific supervisor and organizational support. Personnel psychology, 64(2), 289-313. DOI:

Kurian, G. (1974). Modern trends in mate selection and marriage with special reference to Kerala. The family in India: a regional view, 251-267. DOI:

Lapierre, L. M., Hackett, R. D. &Taggar, S. (2006). A test of the links between family interference with work, job enrichment and leader–member exchange. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55, 489–511.109 DOI:

Locke, H. J., & Wallace, K. M. (1959). Short marital-adjustment and prediction tests: Their reliability and validity. Marriage and family living, 21(3), 251-255. DOI:

Lu, While, A. E. &Barriball, K. L. (2005).Job satisfaction among nurses, a literature review.InternationalJournalof Nursing Studies, 42:211-227. DOI:

Mesmer-Magnus, J. R. &Viswesvaran, C. (2005). Convergence between measures of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 215–232. DOI:

Naseer S., (2000) marital adjustment and stress among traditional couples and dual career couples. Unpuplished dissertation (M.Phil) quaid-i-Azamuniversity : national institute of psychology 2000

Nath, R., & Craig, J. (1999).Practising family therapy in India: how many people are there in a marital subsystem?. Journal of Family Therapy, 21(4), 390-406. DOI:

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., &McMurrian, R. (1996).Development and validation of work–family conflict and family–work conflict scales. Journal of applied psychology, 81(4), 400. DOI:

Parasuraman, S., Greenhaus, J. H. (1997) The changing world of work and family. Integrating work and family: challenges for a changing world (pp.3-14). Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Pimentel, E. E. (2000). Just how do I love thee?: Marital relations in urban China. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(1), 32-47. DOI:

Redmond, J., Valiulis, M., & Drew, E. (2006). Literature review of issues related to work-life balance, workplace culture and maternity/childcare issues.

Robbins, S. P. (2005). Organizational behavior.Parentic hall

Rogers, S. J. and May, D. C. (2003), Spillover Between Marital Quality and Job Satisfaction: Long-Term Patterns and Gender Differences. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65: 482–495. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00482.x DOI:

Schwartzberg, N. S., &Dytell, R. S. (1996). Dual-earner families: the importance of work stress and family stress for psychological well-being. Journal of occupational health psychology, 1(2), 211. DOI:

Shahzad, S., & Begum N. (2011).Urdu translation and psychometric properties of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) in Pakistan. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 9, 57-74.

Shek, D. T. (1998).A longitudinal study of Hong Kong adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning and well-being. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159(4), 389-403. DOI:

Shimazu, A., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., &Peeters, M. C. (2010). Work-family conflict in Japan: how job and home demands affect psychological distress. Industrial health, 48(6), 766-774. DOI:

Sinha, S. P., &Mukerjee, N. (1990).Marital adjustment and personal space orientation. The journal of social psychology, 130(5), 633-639. DOI:

Small, S. &Reily, D. (1990).Toward a multidimensional assessment of work spillover into family life.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 51-61 DOI:

Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 15-28. DOI:

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences (Vol. 3). Sage publications. DOI:

Tennant, G. P., & Sperry, L. (2003). Work-family balance: Counseling strategies to optimize health. Family Journal-Counseling & Therapy for Couples and Families, 11, 404-408 DOI:

Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Topper, E. F. (2007). Stress in the library. Journal of New Library, 108(11/12), 561-564. DOI:

Trachtenberg, V. J., Anderson, S. &Sabatelli, R. (2009), ‘Work-Home Conflict and Domestic Violence: A Test of A Conceptual Model,’ Journal of Family Violence, 24 (7), 471-483 DOI:

How to Cite
Batool, I., Hussain, S., & Bajwa, R. S. (2017). Job Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment among Paramedical: Mediating Role of Work Family Conflict. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 3(1), 61-74.