Future Time Orientation and Moral Self-image: An Analysis of Adolescents in Private and Government Schools in Punjab Pakistan

  • Muhammad Rizwan School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China
  • Xuehong Qi School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China
  • Iram Naz Department of Psychology, University of Gujrat, Pakistan
  • Shumaila Akram Department of Psychology, University of Gujrat, Pakistan
Keywords: Future Time Orientation, Moral Self-image, Government, Private Schools, Gender


The purpose of the present research was to investigate future time orientation and moral self-image in the adolescents of government and private schools. A sample of 300 adolescents was studied from the government and private schools of Kharian, Pakistan by using simple random sampling technique. The construct of future time orientation was measured by using Time Orientation Scale (Zimbardo & Boyd 1999) whereas moral self-image was measured by using Moral Self Image Scale (Jordan, Leliveld, & Tenbrunsel, 2015). The data was analyzed by using simple regression and independent sample t-test. The results revealed that future time orientation was the significant predictor of moral-self-image [R²=.168; F (1, 298) = 60.103, p<.01]. Further, there was difference in the future time orientation of adolescents of government and private school (t (298) = 3.40, p<.05) and difference in moral self-image was not significant (t (298) = 1.02, p>.05). Whereas on gender there was a non-significant difference persist in the future time orientation (t (298) = .62, p>.05) and significant difference identified on moral self-image (t (298) = -2.1, p<.05). It was explored that future time orientation was the significant predicator of the moral self-image. Moreover, there was difference in the future time orientation of government and private school adolescents and no difference on the moral self-image. Moreover, no gender difference was established on future time orientation and a gender difference existed on the moral self-image.


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How to Cite
Muhammad Rizwan, Xuehong Qi, Iram Naz, & Shumaila Akram. (2019). Future Time Orientation and Moral Self-image: An Analysis of Adolescents in Private and Government Schools in Punjab Pakistan. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 5(2), 359-366. https://doi.org/10.26710/jbsee.v5i2.928